Chapter 11: The Development of Food Structures for the Encapsulation and Delivery of Bioactive Compounds
Published:17 Oct 2019
N. J. Zuidam and K. P. Velikov, in Handbook of Food Structure Development, ed. F. Spyropoulos, A. Lazidis, and I. Norton, The Royal Society of Chemistry, 2019, ch. 11, pp. 259-283.
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Bioactive compounds interact on a molecular or supramolecular level with our sensors (e.g. flavour molecules, tastants), participate in the food digestion (e.g. enzymes, probiotics) or metabolism (e.g. micronutrients and nutraceuticals). They are added to food products to enhance their sensorial quality and/or to provide certain nutritional or health benefits. Quite often, however, their stability is compromised. Several challenges can arise related to the physicochemical properties of the bioactive compounds or their interactions with other ingredients in the food matrix. Various approaches based on encapsulation or delivery systems are used to address these issues. In this chapter, we firstly indicate the most common challenges related to the formulation and delivery of functional bioactive molecules. Next, we discuss some of the important aspects of food products as a vehicle for functional bioactive ingredients without encapsulation. Finally, we exemplify and discuss some commonly used approaches of encapsulation and delivery. Basic carrier structures as homogeneous, matrix, core-shell, and multilayer types are shown and exemplified with recent advances for delivery of the most challenging bioactive compounds.