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Human activities have relied heavily on fossil carbon in the form of coal, oil and gas, since the beginning of the industrial revolution. Most of this carbon has been converted into atmospheric and oceanic CO2 through combustion. In order to close the carbon cycle and move from linear to circular carbon flows, the use of biogenic sources is promising, especially for material and chemical production. This work quantifies the potential of carbon from a biogenic origin, which can displace fossil equivalents. Conversion processes are associated with the concept of biorefinery, including biological, chemical and physical treatment to produce comparable outputs to the current processes based on coal, oil and gas. A mass balance inventory of biorefinery processes in carbon terms leads to a map of carbon inputs to product outputs. In a life cycle perspective, biogenic carbon is accounted for from cradle to gate, assuming the product use and end-of-life phases are similar to that of fossil equivalents. The potential outputs made of biogenic carbon are then compared to their fossil counterparts to evaluate how much of it can be displaced, today and in the future. The results show that substituting bio for fossil fuels remains a challenge, even in the most optimistic scenario. However, the results are much more promising in terms of chemicals, demonstrating that all the current use of fossil products could be replaced with bio based materials.

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