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This chapter summarises textiles' environmental impacts and presents some examples of Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) studies. Many LCA studies have been carried out for textile products and the textile industry. These studies have enlightened many of the textile industry's current problems and possible paths to solutions. The review of key environmental impacts is supplemented with a case study on the production of polyethylene terephthalate (PET), one of the most widely produced and used fibres in synthetic textiles. Textile production is an energy-intensive process. Agriculture of textile raw materials uses chemicals and an enormous amount of water. The manufacturing and use phases of textiles are also critical. All wastes and emissions are sources of great concern. Social impacts and potential labour rights violations are also an issue in this industry. Some efforts have been made, such as recycling and reusing textile wastes, using green chemicals and sustainable raw materials, and applying cleaner production methods, however all these efforts do not seem to have given the expected results. Therefore, a new approach – the circular economy – has to be considered. Pursuing traditional methods of textile production will not only continue to create the existing environmental impacts, but will also decrease the profits of textiles companies.

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