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Recent evidence has shown that the chemokine receptor CXCR4 and its natural chemokine ligand CXCL12 promote pro-inflammatory responses in a variety of situations and this axis has emerged as a central player in tissue fibrosis. Although its role as a co-receptor for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and a key player in various cancers has been well established, the role of CXCR4 in various types of fibrosis has emerged only recently. This review will explore the involvement of CXCR4 in the development of fibrosis, focusing mainly on lung, kidney and eye fibrosis.

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