Nutritional Signaling Pathway Activities in Obesity and Diabetes
Chapter 10: Personalized Nutrition to Treat and Prevent Obesity and Diabetes
Published:24 Aug 2020
A. Panduro, S. Roman, R. G. Milán, L. A. Torres-Reyes, and K. Gonzalez-Aldaco, in Nutritional Signaling Pathway Activities in Obesity and Diabetes, ed. Z. Cheng, The Royal Society of Chemistry, 2020, ch. 10, pp. 272-294.
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Obesity and Type 2 diabetes are chronic diseases that are increasing rapidly in many countries going through a nutrition transition. Namely, traditional societies that have shifted towards a Western-culture diet and lifestyle are mainly at risk for obesity-related chronic disease. On the other hand, diet-related adaptive genes encoding alternative alleles may be related to modern-day chronic diseases. Notably, the risk of dyslipidemias and insulin resistance will depend upon the predominance of the “non-risk” or “risk” allele and the surrounding nutrients (food habits). Under this perspective, obesity and Type 2 diabetes are complex diseases that arise from the interaction between a specific risk allele and obesogenic environmental factors. In this chapter, genes encoding receptors for sugar and fat taste perception, lipid transporters, starch, and milk digestive enzymes, energy homeostasis, and food reward systems, as well as epigenetics and host–gut microbiota interactions, will be reviewed. Populations worldwide differ in both the distribution of metabolic risk alleles and dietary patterns; therefore, one standard diet will not fit all. Currently, personalized treatment strategies should aim to customize nutritional needs based on the individual’s or population’s genetic background, food resources, and culture to treat or prevent obesity and Type 2 diabetes.