Nutritional Signaling Pathway Activities in Obesity and Diabetes
Chapter 9: Proteomics in Nutrition, Obesity and Diabetes Research
Published:24 Aug 2020
Special Collection: 2020 ebook collection
P. Ruiz-Limon, M. Balongo, M. Insenser, F. J. Tinahones, and M. Murri, in Nutritional Signaling Pathway Activities in Obesity and Diabetes, ed. Z. Cheng, The Royal Society of Chemistry, 2020, ch. 9, pp. 237-271.
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Although advances in nutritional research have increased in recent years, the molecular mechanisms and pathways involved in nutritional responses are poorly understood and no one individual technology allows us to obtain the big picture of nutrition network. Therefore, it is necessary to integrate the complementary “omics” technologies and computational analysis to provide a more thorough understanding of how diet may influence health and disease and to apply this knowledge to clinical medicine and diagnostics. By applying the proteomics approach, new biomarker signatures will be discovered in the obesity and Type 2 diabetes field, which might be useful in the prevention and treatment of these complex diseases. The goal of future proteomics research might be personalized medicine. This chapter aims to present the current state of knowledge about proteomics studies of nutritional interventions in the management of diabetes and obesity. Firstly, this chapter reviews the proteomics approaches used for identification and quantification of proteins in nutritional signaling studies. Secondly, proteins altered by food supplements or diets in obesity and diabetes are summarized. And finally, the use of the proteomics approach for the study of diabetes and obesity is discussed. In the next years, it will be necessary to address the individual physiological response to changes in nutrient interventions at protein level. This requires more exploration in nutritional research, overcoming the challenges of protein analysis and applying more robust and sensitive proteomics strategies. These are steps in the right direction to unravel relevant proteins associated with obesity and diabetes.