Nutritional Signaling Pathway Activities in Obesity and Diabetes
Chapter 5: The Interaction of Nutrition with Nuclear Receptors in Obesity and Diabetes
Published:24 Aug 2020
Special Collection: 2020 ebook collection
C. Tovar-Palacio, L. G. Noriega, I. T. Villalvazo, A. Díaz-Villaseñor, and B. Palacios-González, in Nutritional Signaling Pathway Activities in Obesity and Diabetes, ed. Z. Cheng, The Royal Society of Chemistry, 2020, ch. 5, pp. 94-163.
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Dietary components can bind and activate metabolic nuclear receptors, modulating the metabolic complications of obesity and diabetes in different tissues. In the intestine, an HFD induces microbiota dysbiosis, decreasing the production of nuclear receptor ligands such as butyrate and secondary BAs and thus reducing the activation of PPARγ and FXR. Polyphenols and dietary fiber increase butyrate levels, reestablishing homeostasis. In the liver, polyphenols and sterols can activate PPARα and LXRs, increasing fatty acid oxidation, and reverse cholesterol transport and cholesterol and BA excretion, preventing fatty liver and atherosclerosis. In white adipose tissue, PUFAs, soy protein, and polyphenols modulate adipogenesis through PPARγ and LXRα and fatty acid oxidation via PPARα, generating insulin-sensitive adipocytes, whereas in brown adipose tissue these components induce fatty acid oxidation and thermogenesis. In skeletal muscle, polyphenols and PUFAs modulate lipid oxidation through PPARα, PPAPβ/δ, LXRα, LPXβ, and ERRα to maintain insulin sensitivity and mitochondrial function. Finally, in the kidney, HFD causes renal lipid accumulation and renal injury; however, activation of PPARs by polyphenols reduces mesangial expansion, tubulointerstitial fibrosis, and proteinuria. Therefore, the interaction between the nuclear receptors and nutrients cannot be generalized in all tissues since these interactions have a tissue-dependent pattern. Thus, understanding the interaction between dietary components and nuclear receptors in metabolic tissues could suggest new approaches to the prevention and treatment of obesity and diabetes. Knowing the interaction between nutrients and the functioning of nuclear receptors in each organ allows us to have a comprehensive view of obesity and diabetes.