Nutritional Signaling Pathway Activities in Obesity and Diabetes
Chapter 3: Lessons Learned from Recent Clinical Trials Targeting Diets to Treat and Prevent Obesity and Diabetes
Published:24 Aug 2020
Special Collection: 2020 ebook collection
N. S. Wright, 2020. "Lessons Learned from Recent Clinical Trials Targeting Diets to Treat and Prevent Obesity and Diabetes", Nutritional Signaling Pathway Activities in Obesity and Diabetes, Zhiyong Cheng
Download citation file:
Obesity and Type 2 diabetes (T2D) are globally significant health conditions that are projected to worsen. Obesity results from chronic positive energy balance, and T2D is strongly related to obesity. Results from meta-analyses comparing low- and high-fat dietary approaches show no clear differences in long-term outcomes for weight loss or diabetes, although there is better-quality long-term evidence for low-fat approaches. Across the range of dietary strategies presented weight loss ranges from 0 to 11 kg at 1 year. Discussed are relevant mechanistic signaling pathways for obesity and T2D for both low- and high-fat approaches. A convergence of evidence agrees nutrient-rich, low-energy density plant-based foods promote health for people diagnosed with obesity and/or T2D. All diets appear to have difficulties with long-term adherence. More high-quality research is needed.