CHAPTER 2: Characterization of Peptides and Their Assemblies
Published:18 Nov 2020
Methods to characterize the conformation and self-assembly or aggregation of peptides and peptide conjugates are reviewed. Spectroscopic methods to probe conformation, including circular dichroism, Fourier-transform infrared, Raman and NMR spectroscopy, are outlined. Aggregation can be detected by fluorescence probe and analytical ultracentrifugation methods, which are discussed. The analysis of structural information on assemblies from X-ray diffraction, light scattering, small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) and small-angle neutron scattering (SANS) is considered. Imaging methods are also summarized, including atomic force microscopy (AFM) and electron microscopy (SEM and TEM). Peptide gel mechanical analysis using rheometry is also discussed. Selected examples from the literature are used to highlight the applicability of the methods.