Soft Matter for Biomedical Applications
Chapter 28: Cell-based Soft Biomaterials
Published:07 Jun 2021
Special Collection: 2021 ebook collectionSeries: Soft Matter Series
A. S. Silva, L. F. Santos, M. B. Oliveira, and J. F. Mano, in Soft Matter for Biomedical Applications, ed. H. S. Azevedo, J. F. Mano, and J. Borges, The Royal Society of Chemistry, 2021, ch. 28, pp. 720-749.
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Cell-based tissue engineering (TE) has been rapidly evolving to meet the demand of scaffold-free regenerative tissues. Commonly used scaffold-based strategies are often associated with delayed tissue formation, rejection and tissue failure. Scaffold-free TE is a bottom-up methodology that makes use of cell-based soft biomaterials such as cell sheets(CS), spheroids or multishaped microtissues and fiber-shaped multicellular aggregates as building blocks for the construction of functional biomimetic 3D heterogeneous tissues(i.e. consisting of different cell types). Cell-based soft biomaterials are a type of scaffold-free tissues where biomaterials may be used to stimulate and help to orchestrate predetermined functions of natural tissues. The following sections will explore the different cell-based or scaffold-free systems, their advantages, challenges, methods and applications. Major advances in the scaffold-free field resulting from the well-architectured combination of the different methodologies are also reported.