Cellulose Nanoparticles: Synthesis and Manufacturing
Chapter 11: Fabrication of Biodegradable Cellulose Composite Through a Greener Reaction Process
Published:02 Jul 2021
K. Eksiler, Y. Andou, and T. Kawano, in Cellulose Nanoparticles: Synthesis and Manufacturing, ed. V. K. Thakur, E. Frollini, J. Scott, V. K. Thakur, E. Frollini, and J. Scott, The Royal Society of Chemistry, 2021, ch. 11, pp. 236-257.
Download citation file:
Over the last two decades or so, much research into new materials based on natural resources with high performance has been published. The growing significance of these materials is obvious from the growing number of publications. With increasing environmental concerns being raised in particular, this research has underscored green materials that are sustainable, renewable, and biodegradable. Since the use of non-biodegradable products is not sustainable, the utilization of materials which are biodegradable has become a crucial design parameter for expediting new market opportunities for the development of value-added materials based on sustainable environmental science and green chemistry. The addition of lignocellulosic fibers might help to improve the durability, biodegradability, physical, mechanical, and thermal properties of materials. In this chapter, the authors focus on celluloses as a bio-based filler and their modification as eco-friendly methods. Especially, the use of nanofibrillated cellulose, which is produced from lignocelluloses, has been growing exponentially, with its study as a low-carbon material because of its relatively easily achieved high specific surface area, high strength, and stiffness, lighter weight, and biodegradability. This cellulosic fiber has been studied intensively for fiber-reinforced polymer composites with outstanding reinforcing potential to replace glass and/or carbon fiber. Due to the hydrophilicity derived from hydroxyl groups in the structure and inherent tendency to form a strong network held through hydrogen-bonding, cellulose is difficult to disperse in almost all hydrophobic polymer matrices. Therefore, this chapter focuses on surface modification strategies to expand these applications. This work aims to investigate surface modification of cellulose using new greener strategies and to prepare the environmentally friendly next generation of fiber-reinforced plastics. Such lignocellulosic fibers shall be obtained from agro-wastes that are organic nature to produce eco-friendly materials. The development of these materials will play a significant role from economic and environmental points of view.