Cellulose Nanoparticles: Synthesis and Manufacturing
Chapter 2: Application of Nanocelluloses in Rubbers
Published:02 Jul 2021
H. Kazemi, F. Mighri, and D. Rodrigue, in Cellulose Nanoparticles: Synthesis and Manufacturing, ed. V. K. Thakur, E. Frollini, J. Scott, V. K. Thakur, E. Frollini, and J. Scott, The Royal Society of Chemistry, 2021, ch. 2, pp. 38-65.
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Rubbers have unique properties but need to be reinforced to improve their mechanical properties for different applications. Carbon-based materials are the most common reinforcements for rubbers since they can effectively improve the mechanical, thermal and electrical properties, but they are petroleum-based materials and require a high level of energy for production. Today, nanocelluloses (NC) are used as an alternative to carbon-based reinforcements due to their renewability, biodegradability, availability, lower cost and density. NC can be used as a reinforcement for both natural and synthetic rubbers. However, since natural rubber (NR) is a biosourced material like NC, most studies focused on NC/NR bionanocomposites. In this study, the effect of NC on the mechanical, curing, swelling, thermal, water uptake and electrical properties of NR nanocomposites is reported. Then, various NC modifications and their effects on NR nanocomposites are discussed. Also, the effect of NC on other rubbers, such as styrene–butadiene rubber (SBR), nitrile butadiene rubber (NBR), silicone rubber (SR) and butadiene rubber (BR), as well as rubber blends is reported. Finally, a conclusion presents the most important findings with openings for future developments.