CHAPTER 14: Food Proteins in Controlling Satiety
Published:03 Jun 2021
B. L. Luhovyy and M. Akbari, in Food Proteins and Peptides: Emerging Biofunctions, Food and Biomaterial Applications, ed. C. C. Udenigwe, The Royal Society of Chemistry, 2021, pp. 347-370.
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The suppression of hunger with foods provides multiple benefits for human health, including reducing the risk of malnutrition, chronic diseases and psychological disorders. Food proteins contribute to the regulation of satiety through central and peripheral neuro-humoral mechanisms that are determined by multiple characteristics, including amino acid composition, physical aggregate state, food matrix and interaction with other nutrients. The evidence for the satiating effect of proteins is obtained through the behavioural assessment of motivation to eat in humans and can be further supported by their effects on food intake and metabolic biomarkers, including hormones involved in the regulation of satiety and food intake. The understanding of the mechanisms involved in the regulation of satiety by food proteins will direct the development of functional food products and nutritional recommendations aimed at reducing hunger and the longer feeling of fullness. Although the effects of many animal-derived and some plant proteins on satiety are well established, there are many novel sources of food proteins that have not yet been characterized with regard to satiety. New research is needed to test the effect of food proteins derived from traditional and novel sources using reasonably consumed quantities included in foods and meals that represent typical eating patterns for humans.