NMR and MRI of Electrochemical Energy Storage Materials and Devices
CHAPTER 16: In Situ NMR Techniques for Li-ion Batteries
Published:17 Jun 2021
Special Collection: 2021 ebook collection , ECCC Environmental eBooks 1968-2022Series: New Developments in NMR
M. Tang and M. Deschamps, in NMR and MRI of Electrochemical Energy Storage Materials and Devices, ed. Y. Yang, R. Fu, and H. Huo, The Royal Society of Chemistry, 2021, pp. 483-512.
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In situ characterization plays a crucial role in unveiling the mechanisms of batteries under operation conditions. Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) can effectively serve as a non-invasive approach to capture the evolution of electrodes and electrolyte upon electrochemical cycling. The insights into metaphase formation, self-diffusion, kinetics and inhomogeneity that are obtained along temporal and spatial dimensions from in situ NMR/MRI can serve as a guide for the structural design and modification of materials, and for the fabrication of batteries with optimized performance. This chapter focuses on the applications of in situ NMR/MRI for the energy storage community. In particular, some examples of 1H, 7Li, 23Na and 31P in situ NMR applications in different electrodes as well as in situ MRI on electrolytes and electrodes with or without chemical shift information (CSI, S-ISIS, and stray-field MRI) are presented. Furthermore, in situ NMR applied to other energy systems is briefly summarized, and finally the limitations and perspectives of in situ NMR/MRI for working batteries are discussed.