Chapter 8: Vanadium-oxide Molecular Catalysts in Non-aqueous Solution
Published:05 Nov 2020
Y. Hayashi, M. Katayama, and K. Ozutsumi, in Vanadium Catalysis, ed. M. Sutradhar, A. J. L. Pombeiro, and J. A. L. da Silva, The Royal Society of Chemistry, 2020, ch. 8, pp. 144-164.
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In this chapter, various vanadium-oxide clusters are exhibited and their spontaneous formation in solution is rationalized. Unlike organic chemistry that is governed by the formation of covalent bonds, inorganic-oxide molecules are dynamic species due to their flexible ionic bonds and have an exquisite beauty showing a spectrum of beautiful colours arising from various coordination modes and valence states. In a catalytic reaction using a vanadate source, vanadium-oxide clusters are often formed and transformed – it is also easy to restore the structure back to the original form. The relative easiness of the transformation in a different structure of blocks, tubes, bowls, cages, spheres and rings is key to understanding each catalytic process. The analogy between the graphite structure and the V2O5 stacked-2D-sheet structure explains the formation of tubes and spheres and is reminiscent of the discovery of nano-tubes and fullerenes in carbon chemistry. Vanadium chemistry enjoys an easiness of modification and incorporation of a guest molecule that it can feasibly control compared to the stubborn fullerene host–guest complex.