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From macro-pollutants to invisible chemicals, a great variety of contaminants end up in our world's water resources such as lakes, rivers, streams, groundwater and eventually the oceans. Water contamination has drastically contributed to a decline in the quality of freshwater due to the introduction of bio-accumulative, persistent, carcinogenic and mutagenic pollutants. The global water demand significantly increased in the last 100 years, and it will continue to rise with a rate of about 1% per year as a function of the growing population, climate change and economic development.1  Consequently, considerable research efforts have been devoted to water purification in...

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