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Like conventional fuel cells, microbial fuel cells (MFCs) offer an exciting new avenue for generating clean and sustainable electrical energy directly from wastewater and other organic wastes. In recent years, 3D graphene-based macrostructures (GBMs) have been explored as both anode and cathode materials in MFCs to enhance their application potential. 3D GBMs offer an exciting prospect towards application in MFCs owing to their high surface area, biocompatibility, electrical conductivity and chemical stability, thereby leading to an enhanced power generation. This area of research, therefore, provides tremendous opportunities to address the basic challenges of MFCs pertaining to scale-up, commercialization and low power generation in addition to providing alternatives to conventionally used expensive electrodes. The current chapter summarizes the applications of 3D GBMs in MFCs, present their current developmental status, and discuss the key scientific and technological challenges in using them to improve the performance of MFCs.

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