Bisphenol A: A Multi-modal Endocrine Disruptor
Chapter 4: Bisphenol A and Its Impact on Human Telomerase, Telomere Length and Cell Aging
Published:04 Jan 2022
Human telomerase holoenzyme activity and telomere length are critical for immune responsiveness in terms of clonal cell expansion, proliferation, and differentiation. A distorted regulation in these cell structures could result in inadequate immune responses and consequently lead to immune-related diseases and premature impairment of the human immune system. This chapter reviews recent findings on the potential impacts of “low-dose” bisphenol A (BPA) on human telomerase, telomere length, and T-cell aging. A short introduction to the human immune system in the context of aging is given first, with a focus on changes in T cells. We then describe the process of telomerase and telomere length regulation in human T cells before estrogen and its mechanisms of action in human immune cells are addressed. In the next section, the immunomodulatory effects of BPA, as well as the current evidence of how BPA could alter telomerase activity and telomere length in lymphocytes are discussed.