CHAPTER 14: Solvent-free Conditions
Published:20 Oct 2021
This chapter presents several applications of sustainable protocols in organic reactions under solvent-free conditions. A wide range of functional group transformations, including Aldol, alkynylation, acyl transfer, Barbier, Biginelli coupling, cyanation, cyclopropanation, Diels–Alder, epoxide ring-opening, Friedländer, Groebke–Biackburn–Bienaymé, Hantzsch, Henry, hydrogenation, hydroboration, hydrosilylation, N-formylation, Michael, pinacol rearrangement, Paal–Knorr, Reformatsky, Stetter, transketalization, multicomponent condensation, and polymerization reactions, are discussed in detail. These reactions were performed without a solvent, using room-temperature stirring, conventional heating, grinding with a mortar and pestle, ball milling, visible light irradiation, ultrasonic irradiation, solid-state heating, solid-state melting, solid-state UV light irradiation and reactive twin-screw extrusion.