Chapter 9: Functionality of Natural Waxes in Hybrid Fat Crystal Networks
Published:07 Feb 2022
F. Van Bockstaele, M. Romanus, I. A. Penagos, and K. Dewettinck, in Development of Trans-free Lipid Systems and their Use in Food Products, ed. J. F. Toro-Vazquez, The Royal Society of Chemistry, 2022, ch. 9, pp. 235-260.
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Shortenings and margarines are semi-solid lipid-continuous products which are traditionally structured by triacylglycerols containing mainly trans or saturated fatty acids. Since an overconsumption of trans and saturated fatty acids is linked with cardiovascular health diseases, alternative structurants are investigated. In this respect, natural waxes have received a lot of attention as they are known to form a three-dimensional matrix which enables liquid oil to be entrapped at low concentrations. However, wax oleogels are still quite shear sensitive, which limits their use in certain food applications. Besides, including higher amounts of waxes to create stronger gel networks may result in sensory defects. This chapter therefore discusses the potential of combining waxes with common hardstock fats to produce hybrid fat systems. This approach allows fat systems to be created which are partially reduced in trans or saturated fatty acids but maintain the desired rheological and functional properties.