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Rapid population growth and industrial development have led to increasing environmental pollution caused by a variety pollutants such as radionuclides, heavy metals, and pesticides in surface and underground water resources. Magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) and nanocomposites have received significant attention over recent decades in both fundamental research as well as environmental sciences. The unique characteristics of these materials, such as high physical and chemical stabilities, biocompatibility, low toxicity, easy synthesis, excellent recycling capability, and processability under a magnetic field, make them promising candidates as part of the next-generation technology for the treatment of pollutants. Iron-based nanoparticles (INPs), including magnetite (Fe3O4), maghemite (γ-Fe2O3), hematite (α-Fe2O3), and goethite (α‐FeOOH) have been exploited in environmental applications such as the removal of metalloids, heavy metals, dyes, and organic compounds because of their large surface area to volume ratio, various morphologies, and catalytic properties. In fact, the large iron surface area plays an essential role in the interaction with pollutant contaminants. Unlike the bulk, MNPs exhibit unique magnetism, easily tuned to the desired applications. In this chapter, various properties, different synthesis methods, and characterization of magnetic NPs have been summarized. Finally, the application of the different MNPs have been considered to eliminate and purify hazardous and harmful pollutants from water and wastewater.

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