CHAPTER 18: Comparison of Biological and Physicochemical Techniques for Treatment of Coffee Wastewater – A Comprehensive Review
Published:18 Nov 2021
H. Muthukumar, M. K. Shanmugam, S. S. Dash, and S. N. Gummadi, in Biological Treatment of Industrial Wastewater, ed. M. P. Shah, The Royal Society of Chemistry, 2021, pp. 391-409.
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Massive amounts of (anthropogenic) organic compounds have been released into the environment by industry, generating serious issues of environmental pollution. Currently, pharmaceuticals and personal care products are known as emerging organic pollutants and are the main contaminants of concern. Among the pollutants, caffeine is one of the obstinate compounds with a noxious effect on biological systems and it is necessary to eliminate caffeine from water. Caffeine is also considered an anthropogenic indicator for contamination of surface waters. In the past few years, physicochemical (advanced oxidation process, adsorption and filtration) and biological wastewater treatment methods have been developed and extensively used for the removal of pollutants. Currently, biological treatments and nanoparticle mediated photocatalytic processes have gained popularity for the removal of caffeine with high efficiency and low capital requirement. This chapter attempts to explain the challenges, pros, cons, multifaceted operation and time consumption involved in the physicochemical and biological treatment of caffeine.