Chapter 7: Catalysis by Organometallic Complexes
Published:09 Jul 2021
By combining the elementary reactions described in Chapter 6, transformations catalyzed by organometallic complexes can be constructed. This chapter introduces representative reaction systems catalyzed by organometallic complexes, and outlines the reactions occurring. Ziegler catalysts, prepared from tetrachlorotitanium (TiCl4) and alkylaluminium reagents (AlEt3 or AlEt2Cl), and Natta catalysts, prepared from crystalline TiCl3 and alkylaluminium, are very effective for olefin and propylene polymerization, respectively. This development was a paradigm shift, and Ziegler and Natta received the Nobel Prize in Chemistry in 1963 for their discoveries in the field of the chemistry and technology of high polymers. Transition metal complexes serve as catalysts and are used industrially, such as in olefin isomerization, olefin hydroformylation, the production of acetaldehyde by ethylene oxidation (the Wacker process) and the production of acetic acid from methanol and carbon monoxide (the Monsanto process). These catalytic systems successfully apply the elementary organometallic chemistry reactions described in this book and the basis of the catalytic action in these reactions is explained.