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This chapter presents six Nobel Prizes for chemistry relating to the field of organometallics: olefin polymerization catalysts (1963), sandwich compounds (1973), electrically conductive polymers (2000), asymmetric catalysis (2001), olefin metathesis (2005), and Pd-catalyzed cross-coupling reactions (2010). These most prestigious prizes were awarded for achievements in organometallic chemistry or those closely related to this research area. Another, concerning boron- and phosphorus-containing compounds in 1979, can also be classified as relating to the organometallic chemistry of main group elements.

The study of organometallic chemistry started in the middle of the last century, expanded rapidly and achieved a number of pioneering and important scientific milestones, including those noted above. Organometallic chemistry has a strong relationship with other research areas, including inorganic, organic, polymer and catalysis chemistry. It also relates to material science and bio-inorganic chemistry, although these topics are not included in this chapter. The initial successes of organometallic chemistry encouraged many talented scientists to enter the field, which resulted in the further increase of knowledge and progress, expanding the influence of this research field to related sciences and technologies. Many books and articles have already described certain details regarding these Nobel Prizes, but this chapter will focus on the relationship of the discoveries to organometallic chemistry, the initial progress of the related science, and the influence of the research on industry and human society.

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