The focus of interest in nanotechnology has been on nanoelectronics. Conventional diamonds with deliberately introduced nitrogen vacancies have potential applications in quantum computing, but it is in particular the new allotropes of carbon that have fascinated. Over the years, interest has shifted from the fullerenes over carbon nanotubes to graphene, a well-defined material with amazing electronic properties; in particular its electronic conductivity promises appealing applications. Semiconducting oxides are increasingly used in energy applications including Li ion batteries and solar cells. The necessity for nanoscale particles rests on the limited diffusion times for Li ions and the beneficial flat band structure for electron transport. The large intrinsic band gap of TiO2 is circumvented by the process of dye sensitisation in the Grätzel cell, where the energy efficiency has recently been boosted to 15%. Consideration of the low material costs makes this type of cell highly attractive for applications in third generation solar cells or solar water splitting materials. Semiconductor quantum dots in general and single-spin nanomagnets are of interest in information technology. A further focus is on the use of nanomaterials as transport agents or for analytical purposes in medicine. Drugs can be drafted onto the surface or encapsulated in liposomes, providing alternative ways of applying the drugs more selectively. Magnetic particles can be collected by magnets in the region of interest, while vesicles may release the drugs in response to increased temperature in areas of inflammation or altered pH in tumors.