In the previous chapter, we outlined the role of values and societal factors in and for scientific and other chemical activity (research, innovation, industry, business). We have seen that the complexity of the debated issues can overwhelm professionals and practitioners with chemical expertise to a point that any ethical or social consideration is rejected and delegated to other actors and stakeholders. The overall goal of this chapter is to systematise and, thus, tame the discourse on values implicit in science and technology (S&T) development. The most prominent, most widespread and best accepted approach is sustainability. This chapter sets the scene for the following chapters. It is necessary to understand that evaluations of risks, responsibilities, desirable or undesired developments of science and technology proceed in professional realms (governance, commissions, academic and economic decision-making) in discourses among stakeholders on the basis of plausible principles of justice and fairness. Generally, the question is “How do we want to live, and how can we make sure that future generations also have the freedom to ask this question and decide upon it?”. This is the idea of sustainability.