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In most of the compounds we've studied so far, rotating around a bond has a relatively minor effect on the rest of the molecule. When we look at ring structures it's different. The geometrical constraints mean that a change in one place will have a big impact on other carbon atoms. Key to understanding this stereochemistry is the concept of ‘ring flip’. It may look at first sight as though we've just turned a molecule round or over, but in fact ring flip is an important change in conformation. If you use your molecular models and take time to understand, you'll really enjoy this fascinating chemistry.

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