Renewable Resources for Surface Coatings, Inks, and Adhesives
The history of coatings, paints, printing inks and adhesives reflects ancient human ambitions: To protect and embellish objects in their environment, to communicate (initially through pictures, then through printed works), and to connect objects in such a way that they became tools or weapons that expanded the capabilities of their own human bodies. Paints and coatings have accompanied mankind and even the Neanderthal species since the first handling of pigments in the form of cave painting, in the development of Chinese lacquer art based on organic binders, in the painting of modern buildings, vehicles, and industrial plants, or in modern art forms such as graffiti. In early tools and weapons, various structural elements were connected by natural fibres and adhesives. Although the use of nuts and bolts is older, the most important developments in modern bolted joints were only made in the last 150 years. The need to save weight and the complexity of modern composites means that screw connections, soldering, and welding are being replaced again by adhesive bonding in modern automobile and aircraft construction as well as in the batteries of electrical vehicles and e-cars.