The Chemical Biology of Carbon
Chapter 11: Routes to Make and Break C–C Bonds II: Carbon Electrophiles
Published:05 Apr 2023
Special Collection: 2023 ebook collectionSeries: Chemical Biology
2023. "Routes to Make and Break C–C Bonds II: Carbon Electrophiles", The Chemical Biology of Carbon, Christopher T Walsh
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This chapter turns to readily accessible cationic carbon species, carbons polarized to be electron deficient and serve as electrophiles in C–C bond formations in metabolism. Three major categories include (1) the carbonyl groups of aldehydes, ketones, and acyl thioesters, (2) allylic cations available from early dissociation of the C–OPP bond in 2-prenyl-pyrophosphate substrates, and (3) oxocarbenium ions at C1 of glucosyl and ribosyl moieties attached to diphosphate groups. A fourth set of carbons that behave as electron deficient centers in SN2 reactions are the three substituents on the sulfonium atom of S-adenosylmethionine. Conjugated olefins also react as electrophiles.