The Chemical Biology of Carbon
Chapter 14: Glucose Chemical Biology
Published:05 Apr 2023
The Chemical Biology of Carbon, The Royal Society of Chemistry, 2023, ch. 14, pp. 481-506.
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This chapter begins a series of three chapters that examine the molecular logic of specific degradative or biosynthetic pathways involving three iconic metabolites: glucose, squalene, and porphobilinogen. This chapter examines three major metabolic roles for glucose, one catabolic, two anabolic. In the catabolic role of glucose-6-P as a major energy source the chemical and enzymatic logic for its complete oxidation to six CO2 with storage of its 24 bonding electrons are saved as 12 hydride equivalents in NADH and FADH2 are explored through both glycolysis and the citric acid cycle. The two biosynthetic pathways for glucose-6-P are the pentose-P pathway, generating ribose for all nucleic acid building blocks, and the transfer of glycosyl groups as electrophilic fragments at carbon 1 in polysaccharide biosynthesis. The array of hydroxycarbonyl group chemistry and the several alcohol to ketone oxidations of glucose illustrate a biologic universe of carbonyl chemistry.