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The research on nanoceramics for biomedical applications responds to the challenge of developing fully biocompatible implants, which exhibit biological responses at the nanometric scale in the same way that biogenic materials do. Any current man-made implant is not completely biocompatible and will always set off a foreign-body reaction involving inflammatory response, fibrous encapsulation, etc. For this reason, great efforts have been made to develop new synthetic strategies that allow the tailoring of implant surfaces at the nanometric scale. The final aim is always to optimize the interaction at the tissue/implant interface at the nanoscale level. In Chapter 1 we studied the role of natural nanoapatites in the biological frame; Chapters 2 and 3 mainly dealt with those synthesis strategies to obtain nanoapatites and with the substrates to promote the biomimetic nanoapatite formation. The aim of Chapter 4 is to provide an overview of the current and potential clinical applications of apatite-like biomimetic nanoceramics intended as biomaterials for hard tissue repair.

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