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In order to determine precisely the bonding and organisation of molecules at a surface or interface and to understand their properties, it is often necessary to resort to several techniques (which will be referred to in subsequent chapters of this monograph) to reveal the phenomena taking place. Here, these will be discussed in a concise manner with the aim of introducing them to those entering into the area of supramolecular science at surfaces, and emphasising the importance of the specific information that can be gleaned from each one, from bulk and larger scale methods such as calorimetry, contact angle measurements, optical microscopy, and a battery of spectroscopies, to the nanometre-scale probes such as scanning tunnelling microscopy and atomic force microscopy (and all its derivatives).

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