Ceramic materials are used extensively in surgical repair. Like polymers, they may be degradable or non-degradable. Non-degradable ceramics are materials such as alumina and zirconia, which are used to make items, such as femoral heads for orthopaedics which are almost completely inert in the body. Another non-degradable material with clinically useful properties is pyrolytic carbon. Degradable ceramics include various hydroxyapatite materials and other calcium phosphates, and also bioactive glasses. These materials can be used for a variety of repairs involving bone within the body, and the various possibilities in current clinical use are described. The biological responses to these materials are also covered, as are their surgical outcomes.