No chapter on Italian science could be complete without mentioning Galileo whose works mark the beginning of modern science. In Rome, we visit Campo de' Fiori to contemplate the hooded statue of Giordano Bruno who was burned at the stake for holding views akin to those of Galileo. Galileo sites in Pisa are followed by those in Florence including the Galileo Museum and his tomb in the Basilica di Santa Croce. Next, we discuss Alessandro Volta's background, his correspondence with Ben Franklin, his skepticism regarding Luigi Galvani's “animal electricity”, and the construction of his “voltaic piles”, considered to be the first batteries. In the scenic lake-side city of Como we explore the myriad Volta landmarks with a special emphasis on the Tempio Voltiano, a magnificent neoclassical temple. At the University of Pavia, we visit the Volta Cabinet. Finally, we discuss Stanislao Cannizzaro's promotion of Amedeo Avogadro's Hypothesis at the first International Chemical Congress held in Karlsruhe, Germany in 1860. Several Avogadro sites in Vercelli, the site of the Congress in Karlsruhe and several Cannizzaro sites including The Museum of Science “Primo Levi” in Rome are described.