The Chemical Biology of Phosphorus
Chapter 7: Phosphomonoesters: Enzymatic Formation and Decomposition
Published:29 Oct 2020
Special Collection: 2020 ebook collectionSeries: Chemical Biology
The Chemical Biology of Phosphorus, The Royal Society of Chemistry, 2020, ch. 7, pp. 205-240.
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This chapter addresses some of the characteristic properties and reactions of metabolically central phosphate monoesters that comprise the low molecular weight phosphometabolome of cells. Glucose-6-phosphate formation by glucokinase action on ATP and glucose represents the kinetic trapping of the membrane impermeant glucose-6-phosphate anion in cells. Glucose-6-phosphate then undergoes three distinct metabolic fates. The final part of this chapter examines the action of both promiscuous and specific phosphomonoesterases (phosphatases) that use water as a cosubstrate to hydrolyze the phosphate ester to product alcohol and inorganic phosphate. Many of the phosphatase superfamily members use active sites with two divalent metal cations to guide and orient the incoming water and the reactant phosphoester cosubstrate. Some involve covalent phosphoenzyme intermediates.